Previously: Logistics
Until this point in the book, we’ve dealt primarily in specific details: what an expression is, how math works, which functions apply to different data structures, and where code lives. But programming, like speaking a language, painting landscapes, or designing turbines, is about more than the nuts and bolts of the trade. It’s knowing how to combine those parts into a cohesive whole–and this is a skill which is difficult to describe formally. In this part of the book, I’d like to work with you on an integrative tour of one particular problem: modeling a rocket in flight.
We’re going to reinforce our concrete knowledge of the standard library by using maps, sequences, and math functions together. At the same time, we’re going to practice how to represent a complex system; decomposing a problem into smaller parts, naming functions and variables, and writing tests.
So you want to go to space
First, we need a representation of a craft. The obvious properties for a rocket are its dry mass (how much it weighs without fuel), fuel mass, position, velocity, and time. We’ll create a new file in our scratch project–src/scratch/rocket.clj
–to talk about spacecraft.
For starters, let’s pattern our craft after an Atlas V launch vehicle. We’ll represent everything in SI units–kilograms, meters, newtons, etc. The Atlas V carries 627,105 lbs of LOX/RP1 fuel, and a total mass of 334,500 kg gives only 50,050 kg of mass which isn’t fuel. It develops 4152 kilonewtons of thrust and runs for 253 seconds, with a specific impulse (effectively, exhaust velocity) of 3.05 kilometers/sec. Real rockets develop varying amounts of thrust depending on the atmosphere, but we’ll pretend it’s constant in our simulation.
(defn atlasv
[]
{:drymass 50050
:fuelmass 284450
:time 0
:isp 3050
:maxfuelrate (/ 284450 253)
:maxthrust 4.152e6})
How heavy is the craft?
(defn mass
"The total mass of a craft."
[craft]
(+ (:drymass craft) (:fuelmass craft)))
What about the position and velocity? We could represent them in Cartesian coordinates–x, y, and z–or we could choose spherical coordinates: a radius from the planet and angle from the pole and 0 degrees longitude. I’ve got a hunch that spherical coordinates will be easier for position, but accelerating the craft will be simplest in in x, y, and z terms. The center of the planet is a natural choice for the coordinate system’s origin (0, 0, 0). We’ll choose z along the north pole, and x and y in the plane of the equator.
Let’s define a space center where we launch from–let’s say it’s initially on the equator at y=0. To figure out the x coordinate, we’ll need to know how far the space center is from the center of the earth. The earth’s equatorial radius is ~6378 kilometers.
(def earthequatorialradius
"Radius of the earth, in meters"
6378137)
How fast is the surface moving? Well the earth’s day is 86,400 seconds long,
(def earthday
"Length of an earth day, in seconds."
86400)
which means a given point on the equator has to go 2 * pi * equatorial radius meters in earthday seconds:
(def earthequatorialspeed
"How fast points on the equator move, relative to the center of the earth,
in meters/sec."
(/ (* 2 Math/PI earthequatorialradius)
earthday))
So our space center is on the equator (z=0), at y=0 by choice, which means x is the equatorial radius. Since the earth is spinning, the space center is moving at earthequatorialspeed in the y direction–and not changing at all in x or z.
(def initialspacecenter
"The initial position and velocity of the launch facility"
{:time 0
:position {:x earthequatorialradius
:y 0
:z 0}
:velocity {:x 0
:y earthequatorialspeed
:z 0}})
:position
and :velocity
are both vectors, in the sense that they describe a position, or a direction, in terms of x, y, and z components. This is a different kind of vector than a Clojure vector, like [1 2 3]
. We’re actually representing these logical vectors as Clojure maps, with :x
, :y
, and :z
keys, corresponding to the distance along the x, y, and z directions, from the center of the earth. Throughout this chapter, I’ll mainly use the term coordinates to talk about these structures, to avoid confusion with Clojure vectors.
Now let’s create a function which positions our craft on the launchpad at time 0. We’ll just merge the spacecraft’s with the initial space center, overwriting the craft’s time and space coordinates.
(defn prepare
"Prepares a craft for launch from an equatorial space center."
[craft]
(merge craft initialspacecenter))
Forces
Gravity continually pulls the spacecraft towards the center of the Earth, accelerating it by 9.8 meters/second every second. To figure out what direction is towards the Earth, we’ll need the angles of a spherical coordinate system. We’ll use the trigonometric functions from java.lang.Math.
(defn magnitude
"What's the radius of a given set of cartesian coordinates?"
[c]
; By the Pythagorean theorem...
(Math/sqrt (+ (Math/pow (:x c) 2)
(Math/pow (:y c) 2)
(Math/pow (:z c) 2))))
(defn cartesian>spherical
"Converts a map of Cartesian coordinates :x, :y, and :z to spherical coordinates :r, :theta, and :phi."
[c]
(let [r (magnitude c)]
{:r r
:theta (Math/acos (/ (:z c) r))
:phi (Math/atan2 (/ (:y c) (:x c)))}))
(defn spherical>cartesian
"Converts spherical to Cartesian coordinates."
[c]
{:x (* (:r c) (Math/sin (:theta c)) (Math/cos (:phi c)))
:y (* (:r c) (Math/sin (:theta c)) (Math/sin (:phi c)))
:z (* (:r c) (Math/cos (:phi c)))})
With those angles in mind, computing the gravitational acceleration is easy. We take the spherical coordinates of the spacecraft and replace the radius with the total force due to gravity. Then we can transform that spherical force back into Cartesian coordinates.
(def g "Acceleration of gravity in meters/s^2" 9.8)
(defn gravityforce
"The force vector, each component in Newtons, due to gravity."
[craft]
; Since force is mass times acceleration...
(let [totalforce (* g (mass craft))]
(> craft
; Now we'll take the craft's position
:position
; in spherical coordinates,
cartesian>spherical
; replace the radius with the gravitational force...
(assoc :r totalforce)
; and transform back to Cartesianland
spherical>cartesian)))
Rockets produce thrust by consuming fuel. Let’s say the fuel consumption is always the maximum, until we run out:
(defn fuelrate
"How fast is fuel, in kilograms/second, consumed by the craft?"
[craft]
(if (pos? (:fuelmass craft))
(:maxfuelrate craft)
0))
Now that we know how much fuel is being consumed, we can compute the force the rocket engine develops. That force is simply the mass consumed per second times the exhaust velocity–which is the specific impulse :isp
. We’ll ignore atmospheric effects.
(defn thrust
"How much force, in newtons, does the craft's rocket engines exert?"
[craft]
(* (fuelrate craft) (:isp craft)))
Cool. What about the direction of thrust? Just for grins, let’s keep the rocket pointing entirely along the x axis.
(defn engineforce
"The force vector, each component in Newtons, due to the rocket engine."
[craft]
(let [t (thrust craft)]
{:x t
:y 0
:z 0}))
The total force on a craft is just the sum of gravity and thrust. To sum these maps together, we’ll need a way to sum the x, y, and z components independently. Clojure’s mergewith
function combines common fields in maps using a function, so this is surprisingly straightforward.
(defn totalforce
"Total force on a craft."
[craft]
(mergewith + (engineforce craft)
(gravityforce craft)))
The acceleration of a craft, by Newton’s second law, is force divided by mass. This one’s a little trickier; given {:x 1 :y 2 :z 4}
we want to apply a function–say, multiplication by a factor, to each number. Since maps are sequences of key/value pairs…
user=> (seq {:x 1 :y 2 :z 3})
([:z 3] [:y 2] [:x 1])
… and we can build up new maps out of key/value pairs using into
…
user=> (into {} [[:x 4] [:y 5]])
{:x 4, :y 5}
… we can write a function mapvalues
which works like map
, but affects the values of a map data structure.
(defn mapvalues
"Applies f to every value in the map m."
[f m]
(into {}
(map (fn [pair]
[(key pair) (f (val pair))])
m)))
And that allows us to define a scale
function which scales a set of coordinates by some factor:
(defn scale
"Multiplies a map of x, y, and z coordinates by the given factor."
[factor coordinates]
(mapvalues (partial * factor) coordinates))
What’s that partial
thing? It’s a function which takes a function, and some arguments, and returns a new function. What does the new function do? It calls the original function, with the arguments passed to partial
, followed by any arguments passed to the new function. In short, (partial * factor)
returns a function that takes any number, and multiplies it by factor
.
So to divide each component of the force vector by the mass of the craft:
(defn acceleration
"Total acceleration of a craft."
[craft]
(let [m (mass craft)]
(scale (/ m) (totalforce craft))))
Note that (/ m)
returns 1/m. Our scale function can do doubleduty as both multiplication and division.
With the acceleration and fuel consumption all figured out, we’re ready to apply those changes over time. We’ll write a function which takes the rocket at a particular time, and returns a version of it dt
seconds later.
(defn step
[craft dt]
(assoc craft
; Time advances by dt seconds
:t (+ dt (:t craft))
; We burn some fuel
:fuelmass ( (:fuelmass craft) (* dt (fuelrate craft)))
; Our position changes based on our velocity
:position (mergewith + (:position craft)
(scale dt (:velocity craft)))
; And our velocity changes based on our acceleration
:velocity (mergewith + (:velocity craft)
(scale dt (acceleration craft)))))
OK. Let’s save the rocket.clj
file, load that code into the REPL, and fire it up.
user=> (use 'scratch.rocket :reload)
nil
use
is like a shorthand for (:require ... :refer :all)
. We’re passing :reload
because we want the REPL to reread the file. Notice that in ns
declarations, the namespace name scratch.rocket
is unquoted–but when we call use
or require
at the repl, we quote the namespace name.
user=> (atlasv)
{:drymass 50050, :fuelmass 284450, :time 0, :isp 3050, :maxfuelrate 284450/253, :maxthrust 4152000.0}
Launch
Let’s prepare the rocket. We’ll use pprint
to print it in a more readable form.
user=> (> (atlasv) prepare pprint)
{:velocity {:x 0, :y 463.8312116386399, :z 0},
:position {:x 6378137, :y 0, :z 0},
:drymass 50050,
:fuelmass 284450,
:time 0,
:isp 3050,
:maxfuelrate 284450/253,
:maxthrust 4152000.0}
Great; there it is on the launchpad. Wow, even “standing still”, it’s moving at 463 meters/sec because of the earth’s rotation! That means you and I are flying through space at almost half a kilometer every second! Let’s step forward one second in time.
user=> (> (atlasv) prepare (step 1) pprint)
NullPointerException clojure.lang.Numbers.ops (Numbers.java:942)
In evaluating this expression, Clojure reached a point where it could not continue, and aborted execution. We call this error an exception, and the process of aborting throwing the exception. Clojure backs up to the function which called the function that threw, then the function which called that function, and so on, all the way to the toplevel expression. The REPL finally intercepts the exception, prints an error to the console, and stashes the exception object in a special variable *e
.
In this case, we know that the exception in question was a NullPointerException
, which occurs when a function received nil
unexpectedly. This one came from clojure.lang.Numbers.ops
, which suggests some sort of math was involved. Let’s use pst
to find out where it came from.
user=> (pst *e)
NullPointerException
clojure.lang.Numbers.ops (Numbers.java:942)
clojure.lang.Numbers.add (Numbers.java:126)
scratch.rocket/step (rocket.clj:125)
user/eval1478 (NO_SOURCE_FILE:1)
clojure.lang.Compiler.eval (Compiler.java:6619)
clojure.lang.Compiler.eval (Compiler.java:6582)
clojure.core/eval (core.clj:2852)
clojure.main/repl/readevalprint6588/fn6591 (main.clj:259)
clojure.main/repl/readevalprint6588 (main.clj:259)
clojure.main/repl/fn6597 (main.clj:277)
clojure.main/repl (main.clj:277)
clojure.tools.nrepl.middleware.interruptibleeval/evaluate/fn589 (interruptible_eval.clj:56)
This is called a stack trace: the stack is the context of the program at each function call. It traces the path the computer took in evaluating the expression, from the bottom to the top. At the bottom is the REPL, and Clojure compiler. Our code begins at user/eval1478
–that’s the compiler’s name for the expression we just typed. That function called scratch.rocket/step
, which in turn called Numbers.add
, and that called Numbers.ops
. Let’s start by looking at the last function we wrote before calling into Clojure’s standard library: the step
function, in rocket.clj
, on line 125
.
123 (assoc craft
124 ; Time advances by dt seconds
125 :t (+ dt (:t craft))
Ah; we named the time field :time
earlier, not :t
. Let’s replace :t
with :time
, save the file, and reload.
user=> (use 'scratch.rocket :reload)
nil
user=> (> (atlasv) prepare (step 1) pprint)
{:velocity {:x 0.45154055666826215, :y 463.8312116386399, :z 9.8},
:position {:x 6378137, :y 463.8312116386399, :z 0},
:drymass 50050,
:fuelmass 71681400/253,
:time 1,
:isp 3050,
:maxfuelrate 284450/253,
:maxthrust 4152000.0}
Look at that! Our position is unchanged (because our velocity was zero), but our velocity has shifted. We’re now moving… wait, 9.8 meters per second south? That can’t be right. Gravity points down, not sideways. Something must be wrong with our spherical coordinate system. Let’s write a test in test/scratch/rocket_test.clj
to explore.
(ns scratch.rockettest
(:require [clojure.test :refer :all]
[scratch.rocket :refer :all]))
(deftest sphericalcoordinatetest
(let [pos {:x 1 :y 2 :z 3}]
(testing "roundtrip"
(is (= pos (> pos cartesian>spherical spherical>cartesian))))))
aphyr@waterhouse:~/scratch$ lein test
lein test scratch.coretest
lein test scratch.rockettest
lein test :only scratch.rockettest/sphericalcoordinatetest
FAIL in (sphericalcoordinatetest) (rocket_test.clj:8)
roundtrip
expected: (= pos (> pos cartesian>spherical spherical>cartesian))
actual: (not (= {:z 3, :y 2, :x 1} {:x 1.0, :y 1.9999999999999996, :z 1.6733200530681513}))
Ran 2 tests containing 4 assertions.
1 failures, 0 errors.
Tests failed.
Definitely wrong. Looks like something to do with the z coordinate, since x and y look OK. Let’s try testing a point on the north pole:
(deftest sphericalcoordinatetest
(testing "spherical>cartesian"
(is (= (spherical>cartesian {:r 2
:phi 0
:theta 0})
{:x 0.0 :y 0.0 :z 2.0})))
(testing "roundtrip"
(let [pos {:x 1.0 :y 2.0 :z 3.0}]
(is (= pos (> pos cartesian>spherical spherical>cartesian))))))
That checks out OK. Let’s try some values in the repl.
user=> (cartesian>spherical {:x 0.00001 :y 0.00001 :z 2.0})
{:r 2.00000000005, :theta 7.071068104411588E6, :phi 0.7853981633974483}
user=> (cartesian>spherical {:x 1 :y 2 :z 3})
{:r 3.7416573867739413, :theta 0.6405223126794245, :phi 1.1071487177940904}
user=> (spherical>cartesian (cartesian>spherical {:x 1 :y 2 :z 3}))
{:x 1.0, :y 1.9999999999999996, :z 1.6733200530681513}
user=> (cartesian>spherical {:x 1 :y 2 :z 0})
{:r 2.23606797749979, :theta 1.5707963267948966, :phi 1.1071487177940904}
user=> (cartesian>spherical {:x 1 :y 1 :z 0})
{:r 1.4142135623730951, :theta 1.5707963267948966, :phi 0.7853981633974483}
Oh, wait, that looks odd. {:x 1 :y 1 :z 0}
is on the equator: phi–the angle from the pole–should be pi/2 or ~1.57, and theta–the angle around the equator–should be pi/4 or 0.78. Those coordinates are reversed! Doublechecking our formulas with Wolfram MathWorld shows that we mixed up phi and theta! Let’s redefine cartesian>spherical
correctly.
(defn cartesian>spherical
"Converts a map of Cartesian coordinates :x, :y, and :z to spherical
coordinates :r, :theta, and :phi."
[c]
(let [r (Math/sqrt (+ (Math/pow (:x c) 2)
(Math/pow (:y c) 2)
(Math/pow (:z c) 2)))]
{:r r
:phi (Math/acos (/ (:z c) r))
:theta (Math/atan2 (/ (:y c) (:x c)))}))
aphyr@waterhouse:~/scratch$ lein test
lein test scratch.coretest
lein test scratch.rockettest
Ran 2 tests containing 5 assertions.
0 failures, 0 errors.
Great. Now let’s check the rocket trajectory again.
user=> (> (atlasv) prepare (step 1) pprint)
{:velocity
{:x 0.45154055666826204,
:y 463.8312116386399,
:z 6.000769315822031E16},
:position {:x 6378137, :y 463.8312116386399, :z 0},
:drymass 50050,
:fuelmass 71681400/253,
:time 1,
:isp 3050,
:maxfuelrate 284450/253,
:maxthrust 4152000.0}
This time, our velocity is increasing in the +x direction, at half a meter per second. We have liftoff!
Flight
We have a function that can move the rocket forward by one small step of time, but we’d like to understand the rocket’s trajectory as a whole; to see all positions it will take. We’ll use iterate to construct a lazy, infinite sequence of rocket states, each one constructed by stepping forward from the last.
(defn trajectory
[dt craft]
"Returns all future states of the craft, at dtsecond intervals."
(iterate #(step % 1) craft))
user=> (>> (atlasv) prepare (trajectory 1) (take 3) pprint)
({:velocity {:x 0, :y 463.8312116386399, :z 0},
:position {:x 6378137, :y 0, :z 0},
:drymass 50050,
:fuelmass 284450,
:time 0,
:isp 3050,
:maxfuelrate 284450/253,
:maxthrust 4152000.0}
{:velocity
{:x 0.45154055666826204,
:y 463.8312116386399,
:z 6.000769315822031E16},
:position {:x 6378137, :y 463.8312116386399, :z 0},
:drymass 50050,
:fuelmass 71681400/253,
:time 1,
:isp 3050,
:maxfuelrate 284450/253,
:maxthrust 4152000.0}
{:velocity
{:x 0.9376544222659078,
:y 463.83049896253056,
:z 1.200153863164406E15},
:position
{:x 6378137.451540557,
:y 927.6624232772798,
:z 6.000769315822031E16},
:drymass 50050,
:fuelmass 71396950/253,
:time 2,
:isp 3050,
:maxfuelrate 284450/253,
:maxthrust 4152000.0})
Notice that each map is like a frame of a movie, playing at one frame per second. We can make the simulation more or less accurate by raising or lowering the framerate–adjusting the parameter fed to trajectory
. For now, though, we’ll stick with onesecond intervals.
How high above the surface is the rocket?
(defn altitude
"The height above the surface of the equator, in meters."
[craft]
(> craft
:position
cartesian>spherical
:r
( earthequatorialradius)))
Now we can explore the rocket’s path as a series of altitudes over time:
user=> (>> (atlasv) prepare (trajectory 1) (map altitude) (take 10) pprint)
(0.0
0.016865378245711327
0.519002066925168
1.540983198210597
3.117615718394518
5.283942770212889
8.075246102176607
11.52704851794988
15.675116359256208
20.555462017655373)
The million dollar question, though, is whether the rocket breaks orbit.
(defn aboveground?
"Is the craft at or above the surface?"
[craft]
(<= 0 (altitude craft)))
(defn flight
"The aboveground portion of a trajectory."
[trajectory]
(takewhile aboveground? trajectory))
(defn crashed?
"Does this trajectory crash into the surface before 100 hours are up?"
[trajectory]
(let [timelimit (* 100 3600)] ; 1 hour
(not (every? aboveground?
(takewhile #(<= (:time %) timelimit) trajectory)))))
(defn crashtime
"Given a trajectory, returns the time the rocket impacted the ground."
[trajectory]
(:time (last (flight trajectory))))
(defn apoapsis
"The highest altitude achieved during a trajectory."
[trajectory]
(apply max (map altitude trajectory)))
(defn apoapsistime
"The time of apoapsis"
[trajectory]
(:time (apply maxkey altitude (flight trajectory))))
If the rocket goes below ground, we know it crashed. If the rocket stays in orbit, the trajectory will never end. That makes it a bit tricky to tell whether the rocket is in a stable orbit or not, because we can’t ask about every element, or the last element, of an infinite sequence: it’ll take infinite time to evaluate. Instead, we’ll assume that the rocket should crash within the first, say, 100 hours; if it makes it past that point, we’ll assume it made orbit successfully. With these functions in hand, we’ll write a test in test/scratch/rocket_test.clj
to see whether or not the launch is successful:
(deftest makesorbit
(let [trajectory (>> (atlasv)
prepare
(trajectory 1))]
(when (crashed? trajectory)
(println "Crashed at" (crashtime trajectory) "seconds")
(println "Maximum altitude" (apoapsis trajectory)
"meters at" (apoapsistime trajectory) "seconds"))
; Assert that the rocket eventually made it to orbit.
(is (not (crashed? trajectory)))))
aphyr@waterhouse:~/scratch$ lein test scratch.rockettest
lein test scratch.rockettest
Crashed at 982 seconds
Maximum altitude 753838.039645385 meters at 532 seconds
lein test :only scratch.rockettest/makesorbit
FAIL in (makesorbit) (rocket_test.clj:26)
expected: (not (crashed? trajectory))
actual: (not (not true))
Ran 2 tests containing 3 assertions.
1 failures, 0 errors.
Tests failed.
We made it to an altitude of 750 kilometers, and crashed 982 seconds after launch. We’re gonna need a bigger boat.
Stage II
The Atlas V isn’t big enough to make it into orbit on its own. It carries a second stage, the Centaur, which is much smaller and uses more efficient engines.
(defn centaur
"The upper rocket stage.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaur_(rocket_stage)
http://www.astronautix.com/stages/cenaurde.htm"
[]
{:drymass 2361
:fuelmass 13897
:isp 4354
:maxfuelrate (/ 13897 470)})
The Centaur lives inside the Atlas V main stage. We’ll rewrite atlasv
to take an argument: its next stage.
(defn atlasv
"The full launch vehicle. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlas_V"
[nextstage]
{:drymass 50050
:fuelmass 284450
:isp 3050
:maxfuelrate (/ 284450 253)
:nextstage nextstage})
Now, in our tests, we’ll construct the rocket like so:
(let [trajectory (>> (atlasv (centaur))
prepare
(trajectory 1))]
When we exhaust the fuel reserves of the primary stage, we’ll decouple the main booster from the Centaur. In terms of our simulation, the Atlas V will be replaced by its next stage, the Centaur. We’ll write a function stage
which separates the vehicles when ready:
(defn stage
"When fuel reserves are exhausted, separate stages. Otherwise, return craft
unchanged."
[craft]
(cond
; Still fuel left
(pos? (:fuelmass craft))
craft
; No remaining stages
(nil? (:nextstage craft))
craft
; Stage!
:else
(merge (:nextstage craft)
(selectkeys craft [:time :position :velocity]))))
We’re using cond
to handle three distinct cases: where there’s fuel remaining in the craft, where there is no stage to separate, and when we’re ready for stage separation. Separation is easy: we simply return the next stage of the current craft, with the current craft’s time, position, and velocity merged in.
Finally, we’ll have to update our step
function to take into account the possibility of stage separation.
(defn step
[craft dt]
(let [craft (stage craft)]
(assoc craft
; Time advances by dt seconds
:time (+ dt (:time craft))
; We burn some fuel
:fuelmass ( (:fuelmass craft) (* dt (fuelrate craft)))
; Our position changes based on our velocity
:position (mergewith + (:position craft)
(scale dt (:velocity craft)))
; And our velocity changes based on our acceleration
:velocity (mergewith + (:velocity craft)
(scale dt (acceleration craft))))))
Same as before, only now we call stage
prior to the physics simulation. Let’s try a launch.
aphyr@waterhouse:~/scratch$ lein test scratch.rockettest
lein test scratch.rockettest
Crashed at 2415 seconds
Maximum altitude 4598444.289945109 meters at 1446 seconds
lein test :only scratch.rockettest/makesorbit
FAIL in (makesorbit) (rocket_test.clj:27)
expected: (not (crashed? trajectory))
actual: (not (not true))
Ran 2 tests containing 3 assertions.
1 failures, 0 errors.
Tests failed.
Still crashed–but we increased our apoapsis from 750 kilometers to 4,598 kilometers. That’s plenty high, but we’re still not making orbit. Why? Because we’re going straight up, then straight back down. To orbit, we need to move sideways, around the earth.
Orbital insertion
Our spacecraft is shooting upwards, but in order to remain in orbit around the earth, it has to execute a second burn: an orbital injection maneuver. That injection maneuver is also called a circularization burn because it turns the orbit from an ascending parabola into a circle (or something roughly like it). We don’t need to be precise about circularization–any trajectory that doesn’t hit the planet will suffice. All we have to do is burn towards the horizon, once we get high enough.
To do that, we’ll need to enhance the rocket’s control software. We assumed that the rocket would always thrust in the +x direction; but now we’ll need to thrust in multiple directions. We’ll break up the engine force into two parts: thrust
(how hard the rocket motor pushes) and orientation
(which determines the direction the rocket is pointing.)
(defn unitvector
"Scales coordinates to magnitude 1."
[coordinates]
(scale (/ (magnitude coordinates)) coordinates))
(defn engineforce
"The force vector, each component in Newtons, due to the rocket engine."
[craft]
(scale (thrust craft) (unitvector (orientation craft))))
We’re taking the orientation of the craft–some coordinates–and scaling it to be of length one with unitvector
. Then we’re scaling the orientation vector by the thrust, returning a thrust vector.
As we go back and redefine parts of the program, you might see an error like
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.RuntimeException: Unable to resolve symbol: unitvector in this context, compiling:(scratch/rocket.clj:69:11)
at clojure.lang.Compiler.analyze(Compiler.java:6380)
at clojure.lang.Compiler.analyze(Compiler.java:6322)
This is a stack trace from the Clojure compiler. It indicates that in scratch/rocket.clj
, on line 69
, column 11
, we used the symbol unitvector
–but it didn’t have a meaning at that point in the program. Perhaps unitvector
is defined below that line. There are two ways to solve this.

Organize your functions so that the simple ones come first, and those that depend on them come later. Read this way, namespaces tell a story, progressing from smaller to bigger, more complex problems.

Sometimes, ordering functions this way is impossible, or would put related ideas too far apart. In this case you can
(declare unitvector)
near the top of the namespace. This tells Clojure thatunitvector
isn’t defined yet, but it’ll come later.
Now that we’ve broken up engineforce
into thrust
and orientation
, we have to control the thrust properly for our two burns. We’ll start by defining the times for the initial ascent and circularization burn, expressed as vectors of start and end times, in seconds.
(def ascent
"The start and end times for the ascent burn."
[0 3000])
(def circularization
"The start and end times for the circularization burn."
[4000 1000])
Now we’ll change the thrust by adjusting the rate of fuel consumption. Instead of burning at maximum until running out of fuel, we’ll execute two distinct burns.
(defn fuelrate
"How fast is fuel, in kilograms/second, consumed by the craft?"
[craft]
(cond
; Out of fuel
(<= (:fuelmass craft) 0)
0
; Ascent burn
(<= (first ascent) (:time craft) (last ascent))
(:maxfuelrate craft)
; Circularization burn
(<= (first circularization) (:time craft) (last circularization))
(:maxfuelrate craft)
; Shut down engines otherwise
:else 0))
We’re using cond
to express four distinct possibilities: that we’ve run out of fuel, executing either of the two burns, or resting with the engines shut down. Because the comparison function <=
takes any number of arguments and asserts that they occur in order, expressing intervals like “the time is between the first and last times in the ascent” is easy.
Finally, we need to determine the direction to burn in. This one’s gonna require some tricky linear algebra. You don’t need to worry about the specifics here–the goal is to find out what direction the rocket should burn to fly towards the horizon, in a circle around the planet. We’re doing that by taking the rocket’s velocity vector, and flattening out the velocity towards or away from the planet. All that’s left is the direction the rocket is flying around the earth.
(defn dotproduct
"Finds the inner product of two x, y, z coordinate maps.
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dot_product."
[c1 c2]
(+ (* (:x c1) (:x c2))
(* (:y c1) (:y c2))
(* (:z c1) (:z c2))))
(defn projection
"The component of coordinate map a in the direction of coordinate map b.
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_projection."
[a b]
(let [b (unitvector b)]
(scale (dotproduct a b) b)))
(defn rejection
"The component of coordinate map a *not* in the direction of coordinate map
b."
[a b]
(let [a' (projection a b)]
{:x ( (:x a) (:x a'))
:y ( (:y a) (:y a'))
:z ( (:z a) (:z a'))}))
With the mathematical underpinnings ready, we’ll define the orientation control software:
(defn orientation
"What direction is the craft pointing?"
[craft]
(cond
; Initially, point along the *position* vector of the craftthat is
; to say, straight up, away from the earth.
(<= (first ascent) (:time craft) (last ascent))
(:position craft)
; During the circularization burn, we want to burn *sideways*, in the
; direction of the orbit. We'll find the component of our velocity
; which is aligned with our position vector (that is to say, the vertical
; velocity), and subtract the vertical component. All that's left is the
; *horizontal* part of our velocity.
(<= (first circularization) (:time craft) (last circularization))
(rejection (:velocity craft) (:position craft))
; Otherwise, just point straight ahead.
:else (:velocity craft)))
For the ascent burn, we’ll push straight away from the planet. For circularization, we use the rejection
function to find the part of the velocity around the planet, and thrust in that direction. By default, we’ll leave the rocket pointing in the direction of travel.
With these changes made, the rocket should execute two burns. Let’s rerun the tests and see.
aphyr@waterhouse:~/scratch$ lein test scratch.rockettest
lein test scratch.rockettest
Ran 2 tests containing 3 assertions.
0 failures, 0 errors.
We finally did it! We’re rocket scientists!
Review
(ns scratch.rocket)
;; Linear algebra for {:x 1 :y 2 :z 3} coordinate vectors.
(defn mapvalues
"Applies f to every value in the map m."
[f m]
(into {}
(map (fn [pair]
[(key pair) (f (val pair))])
m)))
(defn magnitude
"What's the radius of a given set of cartesian coordinates?"
[c]
; By the Pythagorean theorem...
(Math/sqrt (+ (Math/pow (:x c) 2)
(Math/pow (:y c) 2)
(Math/pow (:z c) 2))))
(defn scale
"Multiplies a map of x, y, and z coordinates by the given factor."
[factor coordinates]
(mapvalues (partial * factor) coordinates))
(defn unitvector
"Scales coordinates to magnitude 1."
[coordinates]
(scale (/ (magnitude coordinates)) coordinates))
(defn dotproduct
"Finds the inner product of two x, y, z coordinate maps. See
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dot_product"
[c1 c2]
(+ (* (:x c1) (:x c2))
(* (:y c1) (:y c2))
(* (:z c1) (:z c2))))
(defn projection
"The component of coordinate map a in the direction of coordinate map b.
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_projection."
[a b]
(let [b (unitvector b)]
(scale (dotproduct a b) b)))
(defn rejection
"The component of coordinate map a *not* in the direction of coordinate map
b."
[a b]
(let [a' (projection a b)]
{:x ( (:x a) (:x a'))
:y ( (:y a) (:y a'))
:z ( (:z a) (:z a'))}))
;; Coordinate conversion
(defn cartesian>spherical
"Converts a map of Cartesian coordinates :x, :y, and :z to spherical
coordinates :r, :theta, and :phi."
[c]
(let [r (magnitude c)]
{:r r
:phi (Math/acos (/ (:z c) r))
:theta (Math/atan2 (/ (:y c) (:x c)))}))
(defn spherical>cartesian
"Converts spherical to Cartesian coordinates."
[c]
{:x (* (:r c) (Math/cos (:theta c)) (Math/sin (:phi c)))
:y (* (:r c) (Math/sin (:theta c)) (Math/sin (:phi c)))
:z (* (:r c) (Math/cos (:phi c)))})
;; The earth
(def earthequatorialradius
"Radius of the earth, in meters"
6378137)
(def earthday
"Length of an earth day, in seconds."
86400)
(def earthequatorialspeed
"How fast points on the equator move, relative to the center of the earth, in
meters/sec."
(/ (* 2 Math/PI earthequatorialradius)
earthday))
(def g "Acceleration of gravity in meters/s^2" 9.8)
(def initialspacecenter
"The initial position and velocity of the launch facility"
{:time 0
:position {:x earthequatorialradius
:y 0
:z 0}
:velocity {:x 0
:y earthequatorialspeed
:z 0}})
;; Craft
(defn centaur
"The upper rocket stage.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaur_(rocket_stage)
http://www.astronautix.com/stages/cenaurde.htm"
[]
{:drymass 2361
:fuelmass 13897
:isp 4354
:maxfuelrate (/ 13897 470)})
(defn atlasv
"The full launch vehicle. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlas_V"
[nextstage]
{:drymass 50050
:fuelmass 284450
:isp 3050
:maxfuelrate (/ 284450 253)
:nextstage nextstage})
;; Flight control
(def ascent
"The start and end times for the ascent burn."
[0 300])
(def circularization
"The start and end times for the circularization burn."
[400 1000])
(defn orientation
"What direction is the craft pointing?"
[craft]
(cond
; Initially, point along the *position* vector of the craftthat is
; to say, straight up, away from the earth.
(<= (first ascent) (:time craft) (last ascent))
(:position craft)
; During the circularization burn, we want to burn *sideways*, in the
; direction of the orbit. We'll find the component of our velocity
; which is aligned with our position vector (that is to say, the vertical
; velocity), and subtract the vertical component. All that's left is the
; *horizontal* part of our velocity.
(<= (first circularization) (:time craft) (last circularization))
(rejection (:velocity craft) (:position craft))
; Otherwise, just point straight ahead.
:else (:velocity craft)))
(defn fuelrate
"How fast is fuel, in kilograms/second, consumed by the craft?"
[craft]
(cond
; Out of fuel
(<= (:fuelmass craft) 0)
0
; Ascent burn
(<= (first ascent) (:time craft) (last ascent))
(:maxfuelrate craft)
; Circularization burn
(<= (first circularization) (:time craft) (last circularization))
(:maxfuelrate craft)
; Shut down engines otherwise
:else 0))
(defn stage
"When fuel reserves are exhausted, separate stages. Otherwise, return craft
unchanged."
[craft]
(cond
; Still fuel left
(pos? (:fuelmass craft))
craft
; No remaining stages
(nil? (:nextstage craft))
craft
; Stage!
:else
(merge (:nextstage craft)
(selectkeys craft [:time :position :velocity]))))
;; Dynamics
(defn thrust
"How much force, in newtons, does the craft's rocket engines exert?"
[craft]
(* (fuelrate craft) (:isp craft)))
(defn mass
"The total mass of a craft."
[craft]
(+ (:drymass craft) (:fuelmass craft)))
(defn gravityforce
"The force vector, each component in Newtons, due to gravity."
[craft]
; Since force is mass times acceleration...
(let [totalforce (* g (mass craft))]
(> craft
; Now we'll take the craft's position
:position
; in spherical coordinates,
cartesian>spherical
; replace the radius with the gravitational force...
(assoc :r totalforce)
; and transform back to Cartesianland
spherical>cartesian)))
(declare altitude)
(defn engineforce
"The force vector, each component in Newtons, due to the rocket engine."
[craft]
; Debugging; useful for working through trajectories in detail.
; (println craft)
; (println "t " (:time craft) "alt" (altitude craft) "thrust" (thrust craft))
; (println "fuel" (:fuelmass craft))
; (println "vel " (:velocity craft))
; (println "ori " (unitvector (orientation craft)))
(scale (thrust craft) (unitvector (orientation craft))))
(defn totalforce
"Total force on a craft."
[craft]
(mergewith + (engineforce craft)
(gravityforce craft)))
(defn acceleration
"Total acceleration of a craft."
[craft]
(let [m (mass craft)]
(scale (/ m) (totalforce craft))))
(defn step
[craft dt]
(let [craft (stage craft)]
(assoc craft
; Time advances by dt seconds
:time (+ dt (:time craft))
; We burn some fuel
:fuelmass ( (:fuelmass craft) (* dt (fuelrate craft)))
; Our position changes based on our velocity
:position (mergewith + (:position craft)
(scale dt (:velocity craft)))
; And our velocity changes based on our acceleration
:velocity (mergewith + (:velocity craft)
(scale dt (acceleration craft))))))
;; Launch and flight
(defn prepare
"Prepares a craft for launch from an equatorial space center."
[craft]
(merge craft initialspacecenter))
(defn trajectory
[dt craft]
"Returns all future states of the craft, at dtsecond intervals."
(iterate #(step % 1) craft))
;; Analyzing trajectories
(defn altitude
"The height above the surface of the equator, in meters."
[craft]
(> craft
:position
cartesian>spherical
:r
( earthequatorialradius)))
(defn aboveground?
"Is the craft at or above the surface?"
[craft]
(<= 0 (altitude craft)))
(defn flight
"The aboveground portion of a trajectory."
[trajectory]
(takewhile aboveground? trajectory))
(defn crashed?
"Does this trajectory crash into the surface before 10 hours are up?"
[trajectory]
(let [timelimit (* 10 3600)] ; 10 hours
(not (every? aboveground?
(takewhile #(<= (:time %) timelimit) trajectory)))))
(defn crashtime
"Given a trajectory, returns the time the rocket impacted the ground."
[trajectory]
(:time (last (flight trajectory))))
(defn apoapsis
"The highest altitude achieved during a trajectory."
[trajectory]
(apply max (map altitude (flight trajectory))))
(defn apoapsistime
"The time of apoapsis"
[trajectory]
(:time (apply maxkey altitude (flight trajectory))))
As written here, our first nontrivial program tells a story–though a different one than the process of exploration and refinement that brought the rocket to orbit. It builds from small, abstract ideas: linear algebra and coordinates; physical constants describing the universe for the simulation; and the basic outline of the spacecraft. Then we define the software controlling the rocket; the times for the burns, how much to thrust, in what direction, and when to separate stages. Using those control functions, we build a physics engine including gravity and thrust forces, and use Newton’s second law to build a basic Euler Method solver. Finally, we analyze the trajectories the solver produces to answer key questions: how high, how long, and did it explode?
We used Clojure’s immutable data structures–mostly maps–to represent the state of the universe, and defined pure functions to interpret those states and construct new ones. Using iterate
, we projected a single state forward into an infinite timeline of the future–evaluated as demanded by the analysis functions. Though we pay a performance penalty, immutable data structures, pure functions, and lazy evaluation make simulating complex systems easier to reason about.
Had we written this simulation in a different language, different techniques might have come into play. In Java, C++, or Ruby, we would have defined a hierarchy of datatypes called classes, each one representing a small piece of state. We might define a Craft
type, and created subtypes Atlas
and Centaur
. We’d create a Coordinate
type, subdivided into Cartesian
and Spherical
, and so on. The types add complexity and rigidity, but also prevent misspellings, and can prevent us from interpreting, say, coordinates as craft or viceversa.
To move the system forward in a language emphasizing mutable data structures, we would have updated the time and coordinates of a single craft inplace. This introduces additional complexity, because many of the changes we made depended on the current values of the craft. To ensure the correct ordering of calculations, we’d scatter temporary variables and explicit copies throughout the code, ensuring that functions didn’t see inconsistent pictures of the craft state. The mutable approach would likely be faster, but would still demand some copying of data, and sacrifice clarity.
More imperative languages place less emphasis on laziness, and make it harder to express ideas like map
and take
. We might have simulated the trajectory for some fixed time, constructing a history of all the intermediate results we needed, then analyzed it by moving explicitly from slot to slot in that history, checking if the craft had crashed, and so on.
Across all these languages, though, some ideas remain the same. We solve big problems by breaking them up into smaller ones. We use data structures to represent the state of the system, and functions to alter that state. Comments and docstrings clarify the story of the code, making it readable to others. Tests ensure the software is correct, and allow us to work piecewise towards a solution.
Exercises

We know the spacecraft reached orbit, but we have no idea what that orbit looks like. Since the trajectory is infinite in length, we can’t ask about the entire history using
max
–but we know that all orbits have a high and low point. At the highest point, the difference between successive altitudes changes from increasing to decreasing, and at the lowest point, the difference between successive altitudes changes from decreasing to increasing. Using this technique, refine theapoapsis
function to find the highest point using that inflection in altitudes–and write a correspondingperiapsis
function that finds the lowest point in the orbit. Display both periapsis and apoapsis in the test suite. 
We assumed the force of gravity resulted in a constant 9.8 meter/second/second acceleration towards the earth, but in the real world, gravity falls off with the inverse square law. Using the mass of the earth, mass of the spacecraft, and Newton’s constant, refine the gravitational force used in this simulation to take Newton’s law into account. How does this affect the apoapsis?

We ignored the atmosphere, which exerts drag on the craft as it moves through the air. Write a basic airdensity function which falls off with altitude. Make some educated guesses as to how much drag a real rocket experiences, and assume that the drag force is proportional to the square of the rocket’s velocity. Can your rocket still reach orbit?

Notice that the periapsis and apoapsis of the rocket are different. By executing the circularization burn carefully, can you make them the same–achieving a perfectly circular orbit? One way to do this is to pick an orbital altitude and velocity of a known satellite–say, the International Space Station–and write the control software to match that velocity at that altitude.
In the next chapter, we talk about debugging.
Great addition. One of my first programs was a TRS80 simulation of a space ship orbiting a planet, I hope to interest my son in using it for his physics class.